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This article is the author's final published version in International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 20, October 2023, Article number 15041.

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Copyright © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable multisystem ectopic calcification disorder. The gene responsible for PXE, ABCC6, encodes ABCC6, a hepatic efflux transporter regulating extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a potent endogenous calcification inhibitor. Recent studies demonstrated that in addition to the deficiency of plasma PPi, the activated DDR/PARP signaling in calcified tissues provides an additional possible mechanism of ectopic calcification in PXE. This study examined the effects of etidronate (ETD), a stable PPi analog, and its combination with minocycline (Mino), a potent inhibitor of DDR/PARP, on ectopic calcification in an Abcc6-/- mouse model of PXE. Abcc6-/- mice, at 4 weeks of age, before the development of ectopic calcification, were treated with ETD, Mino, or both for 18 weeks. Micro-computed tomography, histopathologic examination, and quantification of the calcium content in Abcc6-/- mice treated with both ETD and Mino revealed further reduced calcification than either treatment alone. The effects were associated with reduced serum alkaline phosphatase activity without changes in plasma PPi concentrations. These results suggest that ETD and Mino combination therapy might provide an effective therapeutic approach for PXE, a currently intractable disease.

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