Despite four decades of research into the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), a successful strategy to eradicate the virus post-infection is lacking. The major reason for this is the persistence of the virus in certain anatomical reservoirs where it can become latent and remain quiescent for as long as the cellular reservoir is alive. The Central Nervous System (CNS), in particular, is an intriguing anatomical compartment that is tightly regulated by the blood-brain barrier. Targeting the CNS viral reservoir is a major challenge owing to the decreased permeability of drugs into the CNS and the cellular microenvironment that facilitates the compartmentalization and evolution of the virus. Therefore, despite effective antiretroviral (ARV) treatment, virus persists in the CNS, and leads to neurological and neurocognitive deficits. To date, viral eradication strategies fail to eliminate the virus from the CNS. To facilitate the improvement of the existing elimination strategies, as well as the development of potential therapeutic targets, the aim of this review is to provide an in-depth understanding of HIV latency in CNS and the onset of HIV-1 associated neurological disorders.
Sonti, Shilpa; Sharma, Adhikarimayum Lakhikumar; and Tyagi, Mudit, "HIV-1 persistence in the CNS: Mechanisms of latency, pathogenesis and an update on eradication strategies." (2021). Center for Translational Medicine Faculty Papers. Paper 88.
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