Despite reductions in mortality from the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the presence of latent or transcriptionally silent proviruses prevents HIV cure/eradication. We have previously reported that DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) facilitates HIV transcription by interacting with the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) complex recruited at HIV LTR. In this study, using different cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HIV-infected patients, we found that DNA-PK stimulates HIV transcription at several stages, including initiation, pause-release and elongation. We are reporting for the first time that DNA-PK increases phosphorylation of RNAP II C-terminal domain (CTD) at serine 5 (Ser5) and serine 2 (Ser2) by directly catalyzing phosphorylation and by augmenting the recruitment of the positive transcription elongation factor (P-TEFb) at HIV LTR. Our findings suggest that DNA-PK expedites the establishment of euchromatin structure at HIV LTR. DNA-PK inhibition/knockdown leads to the severe impairment of HIV replication and reactivation of latent HIV provirus. DNA-PK promotes the recruitment of Tripartite motif-containing 28 (TRIM28) at LTR and assists the release of paused RNAP II through TRIM28 phosphorylation. These results provide the mechanisms through which DNA-PK controls the HIV gene expression and, likely, can be extended to cellular gene expression, including during cell malignancy, where the role of DNA-PK has been well-established.
Zicari, Sonia; Sharma, Adhikarimayum Lakhikumar; Sahu, Geetaram; Dubrovsky, Larisa; Sun, Lin; Yue, Han; Jada, Tejaswi; Ochem, Alex; Simon, Gary; Bukrinsky, Michael; and Tyagi, Mudit, "DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) enhances HIV transcription by promoting RNA polymerase II activity and recruitment of transcription machinery at HIV LTR." (2020). Center for Translational Medicine Faculty Papers. Paper 68.
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