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This article has been peer-reviewed. It is the author's final published version in Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 10, November 2019, Article number 2612

The published version is available at Copyright © Lai et al.


The mechanisms underlying pathophysiological regulation of tissue macrophage (Mφ) subsets remain poorly understood. From the expression of 207 Mφ genes comprising 31 markers for 10 subsets, 45 transcription factors (TFs), 56 immunometabolism enzymes, 23 trained immunity (innate immune memory) enzymes, and 52 other genes in microarray data, we made the following findings. (1) When 34 inflammation diseases and tumor types were grouped into eight categories, there was differential expression of the 31 Mφ markers and 45 Mφ TFs, highlighted by 12 shared and 20 group-specific disease pathways. (2) Mφ in lung, liver, spleen, and intestine (LLSI-Mφ) express higher M1 Mφ markers than lean adipose tissue Mφ (ATMφ) physiologically. (3) Pro-adipogenic TFs C/EBPα and PPARγ and proinflammatory adipokine leptin upregulate the expression of M1 Mφ markers. (4) Among 10 immune checkpoint receptors (ICRs), LLSI-Mφ and bone marrow (BM) Mφ express higher levels of CD274 (PDL-1) than ATMφ, presumably to counteract the M1 dominant status via its reverse signaling behavior. (5) Among 24 intercellular communication exosome mediators, LLSI- and BM- Mφ prefer to use RAB27A and STX3 than RAB31 and YKT6, suggesting new inflammatory exosome mediators for propagating inflammation. (6) Mφ in peritoneal tissue and LLSI-Mφ upregulate higher levels of immunometabolism enzymes than does ATMφ. (7) Mφ from peritoneum and LLSI-Mφ upregulate more trained immunity enzyme genes than does ATMφ. Our results suggest that multiple new mechanisms including the cell surface, intracellular immunometabolism, trained immunity, and TFs may be responsible for disease group-specific and shared pathways. Our findings have provided novel insights on the pathophysiological regulation of tissue Mφ, the disease group-specific and shared pathways of Mφ, and novel therapeutic targets for cancers and inflammations.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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