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This is the full text of the article from Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2020 Dec 22;14:614331.

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Neurodegeneration of the central and enteric nervous systems is a common feature of aging and aging-related diseases, and is accelerated in individuals with metabolic dysfunction including obesity and diabetes. The molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration in both the CNS and ENS are overlapping. Sirtuins are an important family of histone deacetylases that are important for genome stability, cellular response to stress, and nutrient and hormone sensing. They are activated by calorie restriction (CR) and by the coenzyme, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). Sirtuins, specifically the nuclear SIRT1 and mitochondrial SIRT3, have been shown to have predominantly neuroprotective roles in the CNS while the cytoplasmic sirtuin, SIRT2 is largely associated with neurodegeneration. A systematic study of sirtuins in the ENS and their effect on enteric neuronal growth and survival has not been conducted. Recent studies, however, also link sirtuins with important hormones such as leptin, ghrelin, melatonin, and serotonin which influence many important processes including satiety, mood, circadian rhythm, and gut homeostasis. In this review, we address emerging roles of sirtuins in modulating the metabolic challenges from aging, obesity, and diabetes that lead to neurodegeneration in the ENS and CNS. We also highlight a novel role for sirtuins along the microbiota-gut-brain axis in modulating neurodegeneration.

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