Richard A Hoppmann, University of South Carolina School of Medicine
Jeanette Mladenovic, Foundation for the Advancement of International Medical Education and Research
Lawrence Melniker, NewYork-Presbyterian Health System
Radu Badea, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Michael Blaivas, University of South Carolina School of Medicine
Miguel Montorfano, Hospital de Emergencias "Dr. Clemente Alvarez"
Alfred Abuhamad, Eastern Virginia School of Medicine
Vicki Noble, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center
Arif Hussain, King Abdulaziz Medical City
Gregor Prosen, University Medical Centre Maribor
Tomás Villen, Francisco de Vitoria University School of Medicine
Gabriele Via, Istituto Cardiocentro Ticino
Ramon Nogue, University of Lleida School of Medicine
Craig Goodmurphy, Penn State College of Medicine
Marcus Bastos, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas e da Saúde de Juiz de Fora - SUPREMA
G Stephen Nace, University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Giovanni Volpicelli, San Luigi Gonzaga University Hospital
Richard J Wakefield, University of Leeds
Steve Wilson, University of South Carolina School of Medicine
Anjali Bhagra, Mayo Clinic
Jongyeol Kim, School of Medicine Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
David Bahner, The Ohio State University
Chris Fox, University of California Irvine
Ruth Riley, University of South Carolina School of Medicine
Peter Steinmetz, McGill University
Bret P Nelson, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
John Pellerito, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell Health
Levon N Nazarian, Thomas Jefferson University
L Britt Wilson, University of South Carolina School of Medicine
Irene W Y Ma, University of Calgary
David Amponsah, Henry Ford Hospital
Keith R Barron, University of South Carolina School of Medicine
Renee K Dversdal, Oregon Health & Science University
Mike Wagner, University of South Carolina School of Medicine
Anthony J Dean, Perelman University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
David Tierney, Abbott Northwestern Hospital
James W Tsung, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Paula Nocera, Hospital Sírio Libanês
José Pazeli, Barbacena's School of Medicine
Rachel Liu, Yale School of Medicine
Susanna Price, Royal Brompton Hospita
Luca Neri, King Fahad Specialist Hospital Dammam
Barbara Piccirillo, New York Institute of Technology
Adi Osman, Hospital Raja Permaisuri
Vaughan Lee, University of South Alabama College of Medicine
Nitha Naqvi, Royal Brompton Hospita
Tomislav Petrovic, Hôpitaux de Paris
Paul Bornemann, University of South Carolina School of Medicine
Maxime Valois, McGill and Sherbrooke Universities
Jean-Francoise Lanctot, McGill and Sherbrooke Universities
Robert Haddad, University of South Carolina School of Medicine
Deepak Govil, Medanta - The Medicity
Laura A Hurtado, Universidad de Buenos Aires
Vi Am Dinh, Loma Linda University Medical Center
Robert M DePhilip, The Ohio State University
Beatrice Hoffmann, Harvard Medical School
Resa E Lewiss, Thomas Jefferson University
Nayana A Parange, University of South Australia Allied Health and Human Performance
Akira Nishisaki, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine
Stephanie J Doniger, Children's Hospital in Orange California
Paul Dallas, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine
Kevin Bergman, University of California - San Francisco
J Oscar Barahona, Greenwich Ultrasound Associates, PC
Ximena Wortsman, Universidad de Chile
R Stephen Smith, University of Florida College of Medicine
Craig A Sisson, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
James Palma, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine
Mike Mallin
Liju Ahmed, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center
Hassan Mustafa, University of Manitoba

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This article is the author's final published version in Ultrasound Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, July 2022, Article number 31.

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Copyright © 2022, The Author(s).

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OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to provide expert consensus recommendations to establish a global ultrasound curriculum for undergraduate medical students.

METHODS: 64 multi-disciplinary ultrasound experts from 16 countries, 50 multi-disciplinary ultrasound consultants, and 21 medical students and residents contributed to these recommendations. A modified Delphi consensus method was used that included a systematic literature search, evaluation of the quality of literature by the GRADE system, and the RAND appropriateness method for panel judgment and consensus decisions. The process included four in-person international discussion sessions and two rounds of online voting.

RESULTS: A total of 332 consensus conference statements in four curricular domains were considered: (1) curricular scope (4 statements), (2) curricular rationale (10 statements), (3) curricular characteristics (14 statements), and (4) curricular content (304 statements). Of these 332 statements, 145 were recommended, 126 were strongly recommended, and 61 were not recommended. Important aspects of an undergraduate ultrasound curriculum identified include curricular integration across the basic and clinical sciences and a competency and entrustable professional activity-based model. The curriculum should form the foundation of a life-long continuum of ultrasound education that prepares students for advanced training and patient care. In addition, the curriculum should complement and support the medical school curriculum as a whole with enhanced understanding of anatomy, physiology, pathophysiological processes and clinical practice without displacing other important undergraduate learning. The content of the curriculum should be appropriate for the medical student level of training, evidence and expert opinion based, and include ongoing collaborative research and development to ensure optimum educational value and patient care.

CONCLUSIONS: The international consensus conference has provided the first comprehensive document of recommendations for a basic ultrasound curriculum. The document reflects the opinion of a diverse and representative group of international expert ultrasound practitioners, educators, and learners. These recommendations can standardize undergraduate medical student ultrasound education while serving as a basis for additional research in medical education and the application of ultrasound in clinical practice.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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