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This article is the author's final published version in International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 6, March 2024, Article number 3407.

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Copyright © 2024 by the authors


Despite treatment advances, breast cancer remains a leading cause of death of women in the United States, mostly due to metastatic disease. Bone is a preferential site for breast cancer metastasis, and most metastatic breast cancer patients experience bone involvement at the time of death. The majority of patients with bone metastatic breast cancer are first diagnosed with and treated for early-stage disease, and from development of early-stage breast cancer to the recurrence of cancer in the bones, up to 30 years may elapse. Throughout this timeframe, a typical patient undergoes many treatments that have effects on the bone microenvironment. Therefore, this review explores the clinical course of a representative patient with hormone receptor-positive bone metastatic breast cancer, examining key treatment options at each stage and their effects on preventing and treating bone metastases.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.