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This article is the author's final published version in Anticancer Research, Volume 44, Issue 6, June 2024, Pg. 2307 - 2323.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2024 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.


Background/Aim: Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive type of cancer, with a dismally low survival rate of <5%. FDA-approved drugs like gemcitabine have shown little therapeutic success, prolonging survival by a mere six months. Isoflavones, such as biochanin A and daidzein, are known to exhibit anti-cancer activity, whereas statins reportedly have anti-proliferative effects. This study investigated the effects of combination treatment of biochanin A and atorvastatin on pancreatic cancer cells.

Materials and Methods: Pancreatic cancer cells AsPC-1, PANC-1, and MIA PaCa-2 were procured from ATCC. The cell viability studies were carried out using MTT & cell count assays. Flow cytometry was used to study cell apoptosis whereas cell metabolism studies were carried out using the Seahorse Mito stress test and XF-PMP assay. The effects of treatment on cell signaling pathways & cell cycle associated proteins were investigated using western blot whereas invasiveness of cancer cells was evaluated using gelatin zymography.

Results: The combination treatment decreased the survival and enhanced pro-apoptotic responses compared to single treatments in the pancreatic cancer cells. In PANC-1 cells, the combination treatment decreased invasiveness, reduced expression of activated STAT3 and expression of critical mediators of cell cycle progression. Furthermore, the combination treatment induced a differential inhibition of respiratory complexes in the pancreatic cancer cells.

Conclusion: The combination treatment of biochanin A and atorvastatin exerts enhanced anti-cancer effects, inducing apoptosis, down-regulating cell cycle associated proteins and invasiveness in pancreatic cancer cells and merits further investigation for new, improved treatments for pancreatic cancer.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

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