Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent phospholipid mediator that exerts various pathophysiological effects by interacting with a G protein-coupled receptor. PAF has been reported to increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via incompletely characterized mechanisms. We investigated the effect of PAF on rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBMVEC), a critical component of the BBB. PAF produced a dose-dependent increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration; the effect was prevented by the PAF receptor antagonist, WEB2086. The effect of PAF on cytosolic Ca2+ was abolished in Ca2+-free saline or in the presence of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel inhibitor, nifedipine, indicating that Ca2+ influx is critical for PAF-induced increase in cytosolic Ca2+. PAF produced RBMVEC depolarization; the effect was inhibited by WEB2086. In cells loaded with [(4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluoro-fluorescein)diacetate] (DAF-FM), a nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive fluorescent dye, PAF increased the NO level; the effect was prevented by WEB2086, nifedipine or by l-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase. Immunocytochemistry studies indicate that PAF reduced the immunostaining of ZO-1, a tight junction-associated protein, increased F-actin fibers, and produced intercellular gaps. PAF produced a decrease in RBMVEC monolayer electrical resistance assessed with Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS), indicative of a disruption of endothelial barrier function. In vivo studies indicate that PAF increased the BBB permeability, assessed with sodium fluorescein and Evans Blue methods, via PAF receptor-dependent mechanisms, consequent to Ca2+ influx and increased NO levels. Our studies reveal that PAF alters the BBB permeability by multiple mechanisms, which may be relevant for central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory disorders.
Recommended CitationBrailoiu, Eugen; Barlow, Christine L.; Ramirez, Servio H.; Abood, Mary E.; and Brailoiu, G. Cristina, "Effects of Platelet-Activating Factor on Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells." (2018). College of Pharmacy Faculty Papers. Paper 37.
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