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This article is the author’s final published version in Cancers, Volume 15, Issue 3, January 2023, Article number 830.

The published version is available at Copyright © Zhang et al.


Glioblastoma, a WHO grade IV astrocytoma, constitutes approximately half of malignant tumors of the central nervous system. Despite technological advancements and aggressive multimodal treatment, prognosis remains dismal. The highly vascularized nature of glioblastoma enables the tumor cells to grow and invade the surrounding tissue, and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is a critical mediator of this process. Therefore, over the past decade, angiogenesis, and more specifically, the VEGF signaling pathway, has emerged as a therapeutic target for glioblastoma therapy. This led to the FDA approval of bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody designed against VEGF-A, for treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. Despite the promising preclinical data and its theoretical effectiveness, bevacizumab has failed to improve patients' overall survival. Furthermore, several other anti-angiogenic agents that target the VEGF signaling pathway have also not demonstrated survival improvement. This suggests the presence of other compensatory angiogenic signaling pathways that surpass the anti-angiogenic effects of these agents and facilitate vascularization despite ongoing VEGF signaling inhibition. Herein, we review the current state of anti-angiogenic agents, discuss potential mechanisms of anti-angiogenic resistance, and suggest potential avenues to increase the efficacy of this therapeutic approach.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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