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This article has been peer reviewed. It was published in: BMC Genomics.

Volume 17, Issue 1, March 25, 2016, Article number 260.

The published version is available at DOI: 10.1186/s12864-016-2492-x

Copyright © 2016 Kuttippurathu et al.

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.


BACKGROUND: Liver regeneration is inhibited by chronic ethanol consumption and this impaired repair response may contribute to the risk for alcoholic liver disease. We developed and applied a novel data analysis approach to assess the effect of chronic ethanol intake in the mechanisms responsible for liver regeneration. We performed a time series transcriptomic profiling study of the regeneration response after 2/3(rd) partial hepatectomy (PHx) in ethanol-fed and isocaloric control rats.

RESULTS: We developed a novel data analysis approach focusing on comparative pattern counts (COMPACT) to exhaustively identify the dominant and subtle differential expression patterns. Approximately 6500 genes were differentially regulated in Ethanol or Control groups within 24 h after PHx. Adaptation to chronic ethanol intake significantly altered the immediate early gene expression patterns and nearly completely abrogated the cell cycle induction in hepatocytes post PHx. The patterns highlighted by COMPACT analysis contained several non-parenchymal cell specific markers indicating their aberrant transcriptional response as a novel mechanism through which chronic ethanol intake deregulates the integrated liver tissue response.

CONCLUSIONS: Our novel comparative pattern analysis revealed new insights into ethanol-mediated molecular changes in non-parenchymal liver cells as a possible contribution to the defective liver regeneration phenotype. The results revealed for the first time an ethanol-induced shift of hepatic stellate cells from a pro-regenerative phenotype to that of an anti-regenerative state after PHx. Our results can form the basis for novel interventions targeting the non-parenchymal cells in normalizing the dysfunctional repair response process in alcoholic liver disease. Our approach is illustrated online at .

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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