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This article, first published by Frontiers Media, is the author's final published version in Frontiers in Neurology, Volume 14, 2023, Article number 1170675.

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Copyright © 2023 Sokolowski, Soldozy, Sharifi, Norat, Kearns, Liu, Williams, Yağmurlu, Mastorakos, Miller, Kalani, Park, Kellogg and Tvrdik.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.


Stroke remains a major burden on patients, families, and healthcare professionals, despite major advances in prevention, acute treatment, and rehabilitation. Preclinical basic research can help to better define mechanisms contributing to stroke pathology, and identify therapeutic interventions that can decrease ischemic injury and improve outcomes. Animal models play an essential role in this process, and mouse models are particularly well-suited due to their genetic accessibility and relatively low cost. Here, we review the focal cerebral ischemia models with an emphasis on the middle cerebral artery occlusion technique, a "gold standard" in surgical ischemic stroke models. Also, we highlight several histologic, genetic, and in vivo imaging approaches, including mouse stroke MRI techniques, that have the potential to enhance the rigor of preclinical stroke evaluation. Together, these efforts will pave the way for clinical interventions that can mitigate the negative impact of this devastating disease.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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