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This article is the author's final published version in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Volume 120, Issue 26, 2023, Article number e2221007120.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2023 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.


The objective of this study is to examine IL-11-induced mechanisms of inflammatory cell migration to the central nervous system (CNS). We report that IL-11 is produced at highest frequency by myeloid cells among the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets. Patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) have an increased frequency of IL-11+ monocytes, IL-11+ and IL-11R+ CD4+ lymphocytes, and IL-11R+ neutrophils in comparison to matched healthy controls. IL-11+ and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)+ monocytes, CD4+ lymphocytes, and neutrophils accumulate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The effect of IL-11 in-vitro stimulation, examined using single-cell RNA sequencing, revealed the highest number of differentially expressed genes in classical monocytes, including up-regulated NFKB1, NLRP3, and IL1B. All CD4+ cell subsets had increased expression of S100A8/9 alarmin genes involved in NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In IL-11R+-sorted cells from the CSF, classical and intermediate monocytes significantly up-regulated the expression of multiple NLRP3 inflammasome-related genes, including complement, IL18, and migratory genes (VEGFA/B) in comparison to blood-derived cells. Therapeutic targeting of this pathway with αIL-11 mAb in mice with RR experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) decreased clinical scores, CNS inflammatory infiltrates, and demyelination. αIL-11 mAb treatment decreased the numbers of NFκBp65+, NLRP3+, and IL-1β+ monocytes in the CNS of mice with EAE. The results suggest that IL-11/IL-11R signaling in monocytes represents a therapeutic target in RRMS.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

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