Vaccination with recombinant Brugia malayi cystatin proteins alters worm migration, homing and final niche selection following a subcutaneous challenge of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) with B. malayi infective larvae.

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This article has been peer reviewed. It was published in: Parasites & Vectors.

2014; 7: 43.

The published version is available at DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-43 . Copyright © BioMed Central Ltd.


BACKGROUND: Cysteine protease inhibitors of Brugia malayi have been ascribed to be involved in parasite development as well as to immunomodulate the host's immune response. In Onchocerca volvulus, Onchocystatin has been shown to induce partial protection in the mouse diffusion chamber vaccination model. In the present study we investigated the impact of vaccination with recombinant Bm-CPI-1 and Bm-CPI-2 proteins on protection against a subcutaneous challenge of B. malayi third stage larvae in gerbils.

FINDINGS: Vaccination with E. coli derived recombinant B. malayi cysteine protease inhibitors (Bm-CPI-1 or -2) did not confer protection against B. malayi L3 challenge infection in gerbils but altered the homing of a significant number of adult worms from the lymphatics to the heart and lungs.

CONCLUSION: Bm-CPI vaccination-induced alteration in worm migration is consistent with our previous observations in gerbils vaccinated with B. pahangi excretory-secretory (ES) proteins, which resulted in delayed migration of the L3s and altered the final location of adult worms. Similar observations have also been made in dogs vaccinated with Ancylostoma caninum proteins; an increased number of worms were recovered in the colon and not the expected small intestine. A change in the final niche was also reported in immune versus non-immune hosts of two other gut dwelling nematodes. Vaccination induced alteration of the parasite's final homing might be a rare or a common phenomenon, which unfortunately is rarely recorded. The reason for the alteration in the final niche selection by adult nematode worms following vaccination is unknown and necessitates further investigation.

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