Comparative outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for BCR-ABL1- myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in blast phase (MPN-BP) vs de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and AML with prior myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs; post-MDS AML), are unknown. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) database, we compared HCT outcomes in 177 MPN-BP patients with 4749 patients with de novo AML, and 1104 patients with post-MDS AML, using multivariate regression analysis in 2 separate comparisons. In a multivariate Cox model, no difference in overall survival (OS) or relapse was observed in patients with MPN-BP vs de novo AML with active leukemia at HCT. Patients with MPN-BP in remission had inferior OS in comparison with de novo AML in remission (hazard ratio [HR], 1.40 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.76]) due to higher relapse rate (HR, 2.18 [95% CI, 1.69-2.80]). MPN-BP patients had inferior OS (HR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.00-1.43]) and increased relapse (HR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.31-1.96]) compared with post-MDS AML. Poor-risk cytogenetics were associated with increased relapse in both comparisons. Peripheral blood grafts were associated with decreased relapse in MPN-BP and post-MDS AML (HR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.57-0.86]). Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was similar between MPN-BP vs de novo AML, and MPN-BP vs post-MDS AML. Total-body irradiation-based myeloablative conditioning was associated with higher NRM in both comparisons. Survival of MPN-BP after HCT is inferior to de novo AML in remission and post-MDS AML due to increased relapse. Relapse-prevention strategies are required to optimize HCT outcomes in MPN-BP.
Recommended CitationGupta, Vikas; Kim, Soyoung; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Liu, Ying; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Bacher, Ulrike; Beitinjaneh, Amer; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Cerny, Jan; Copelan, Edward; Gadalla, Shahinaz M; Gale, Robert Peter; Ganguly, Siddhartha; George, Biju; Gerds, Aaron T; Gergis, Usama; Hamilton, Betty K; Hashmi, Shahrukh; Hildebrandt, Gerhard C; Kamble, Rammurti T; Kindwall-Keller, Tamila; Lazarus, Hillard M; Liesveld, Jane L; Litzow, Mark; Maziarz, Richard T; Nishihori, Taiga; Olsson, Richard F; Rizzieri, David; Savani, Bipin N; Seo, Sachiko; Solh, Melhem; Szer, Jeff; Verdonck, Leo F; Wirk, Baldeep; Woolfrey, Ann; Yared, Jean A; Alyea, Edwin P; Popat, Uday R; Sobecks, Ronald M; Scott, Bart L; Nakamura, Ryotaro; and Saber, Wael, "Comparison of outcomes of HCT in blast phase of BCR-ABL1- MPN with de novo AML and with AML following MDS" (2020). Department of Medical Oncology Faculty Papers. Paper 125.
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