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This article is the author's final published version in Frontiers in Oncology, Volume 12, June 2022, Article number 924808.

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Copyright © 2022 Arruabarrena-Aristorena and Toska

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The majority of breast cancers are estrogen receptor (ER)+ and agents targeting the ER signaling pathway have markedly increased survival for women with breast cancer for decades. However, therapeutic resistance eventually emerges, especially in the metastatic setting. In the past decade disrupted epigenetic regulatory processes have emerged as major contributors to carcinogenesis in many cancer types. Aberrations in chromatin modifiers and transcription factors have also been recognized as mediators of breast cancer development and therapeutic outcome, and new epigenetic-based therapies in combination with targeted therapies have been proposed. Here we will discuss recent progress in our understanding of the chromatin-based mechanisms of breast tumorigenesis, how these mechanisms affect therapeutic response to standard of care treatment, and discuss new strategies towards therapeutic intervention to overcome resistance.

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