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This article is the author's final published version in Molecules, Volume 27, Issue 16, August 2022, Article number 5124.

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Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


Nanotechnology has become increasingly important in modern society, and nanoparticles are routinely used in many areas of technology, industry, and commercial products. Many species of nanoparticle (NP) are typically synthesized using toxic or hazardous chemicals, making these methods less environmentally friendly. Consequently, there has been growing interest in green synthesis methods, which avoid unnecessary exposure to toxic chemicals and reduce harmful waste. Synthesis methods which utilize food waste products are particularly attractive because they add value and a secondary use for material which would otherwise be disposed of. Here, we show that spent coffee grounds (SCGs) that have already been used once in coffee brewing can be easily used to synthesize gold and silver NPs. SCGs derived from medium and dark roasts of the same bean source were acquired after brewing coffee by hot brew, cold brew, and espresso techniques. The total antioxidant activity (TAC) and total caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) of the aqueous SCG extracts were investigated, showing that hot brew SCGs had the highest CQA and TAC levels, while espresso SCGs had the lowest. SCG extract proved effective as a reducing agent in synthesizing gold and silver NPs regardless of roast or initial brew method.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.