Aim: To examine individual variability between perceived physical features and hormones of pubertal maturation in 9-10-year-old children as a function of sociodemographic characteristics.
Methods: Cross-sectional metrics of puberty were utilized from the baseline assessment of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study—a multi-site sample of 9–10 year-olds (n = 11,875)—and included perceived physical features via the pubertal development scale (PDS) and child salivary hormone levels (dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone in all, and estradiol in females). Multi-level models examined the relationships among sociodemographic measures, physical features, and hormone levels. A group factor analysis (GFA) was implemented to extract latent variables of pubertal maturation that integrated both measures of perceived physical features and hormone levels.
Results: PDS summary scores indicated more males (70%) than females (31%) were prepubertal. Perceived physical features and hormone levels were significantly associated with child's weight status and income, such that more mature scores were observed among children that were overweight/obese or from households with low-income. Results from the GFA identified two latent factors that described individual differences in pubertal maturation among both females and males, with factor 1 driven by higher hormone levels, and factor 2 driven by perceived physical maturation. The correspondence between latent factor 1 scores (hormones) and latent factor 2 scores (perceived physical maturation) revealed synchronous and asynchronous relationships between hormones and concomitant physical features in this large young adolescent sample.
Conclusions: Sociodemographic measures were associated with both objective hormone and self-report physical measures of pubertal maturation in a large, diverse sample of 9-10 year-olds. The latent variables of pubertal maturation described a complex interplay between perceived physical changes and hormone levels that hallmark sexual maturation, which future studies can examine in relation to trajectories of brain maturation, risk/resilience to substance use, and other mental health outcomes.
Recommended CitationHerting, Megan M; Uban, Kristina A; Gonzalez, Marybel Robledo; Baker, Fiona C; Kan, Eric C; Thompson, Wesley K; Granger, Douglas A; Albaugh, Matthew D; Anokhin, Andrey P; Bagot, Kara S; Banich, Marie T; Barch, Deanna M; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle; Breslin, Florence J; Casey, B J; Chaarani, Bader; Chang, Linda; Clark, Duncan B; Cloak, Christine C; Constable, R Todd; Cottler, Linda B; Dagher, Rada K; Dapretto, Mirella; Dick, Anthony S; Dosenbach, Nico; Dowling, Gayathri J; Dumas, Julie A; Edwards, Sarah; Ernst, Thomas; Fair, Damien A; Feldstein-Ewing, Sarah W; Freedman, Edward G; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Garavan, Hugh; Gee, Dylan G; Giedd, Jay N; Glaser, Paul E A; Goldstone, Aimee; Gray, Kevin M; Hawes, Samuel W; Heath, Andrew C; Heitzeg, Mary M; Hewitt, John K; Heyser, Charles J; Hoffman, Elizabeth A; Huber, Rebekah S; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Hyde, Luke W; Infante, M Alejandra; Ivanova, Masha Y; Jacobus, Joanna; Jernigan, Terry L; Karcher, Nicole R; Laird, Angela R; LeBlanc, Kimberly H; Lisdahl, Krista; Luciana, Monica; Luna, Beatriz; Maes, Hermine H; Marshall, Andrew T; Mason, Michael J; McGlade, Erin C; Morris, Amanda S; Nagel, Bonnie J; Neigh, Gretchen N; Palmer, Clare E; Paulus, Martin P; Potter, Alexandra S; Puttler, Leon I; Rajapakse, Nishadi; Rapuano, Kristina; Reeves, Gloria; Renshaw, Perry F; Schirda, Claudiu; Sher, Kenneth J; Sheth, Chandni; Shilling, Paul D; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Sutherland, Matthew T; Tapert, Susan F; Tomko, Rachel L; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Wade, Natasha E; Weiss, Susan R B; Zucker, Robert A; and Sowell, Elizabeth R, "Correspondence Between Perceived Pubertal Development and Hormone Levels in 9-10 Year-Olds From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study." (2021). Institute of Emerging Health Professions Faculty Papers. Paper 9.
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