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This article is the author's final published version in Drug Testing and Analysis, Volume 13, Issue 3, March 2021, Pages 539-549.

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Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.


According to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) regulations, cannabinoids use is prohibited in competition except for cannabidiol (CBD) use. For an adverse analytical finding (AAF) in doping control, cannabinoid misuse is based on identification of the pharmacologically inactive metabolite 11-nor-delta-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (carboxy-THC) in urine at a concentration greater than 180 ng/ml. All other (minor) cannabinoids are reported as AAF when identified, except for CBD that has been explicitly excluded from the class of cannabinoids on WADA's Prohibited List since 2018. However, due to the fact that CBD isolated from cannabis plants may contain additional minor cannabinoids, the permissible use of CBD can lead to unintentional violations of antidoping regulations. An assay for the detection of 16 cannabinoids in human urine was established. The sample preparation consisted of enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronide conjugates, liquid-liquid extraction, trimethylsilylation, and analysis by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Spot urine samples from CBD users, as well as specimens obtained from CBD administration studies conducted with 15 commercially available CBD products, were analyzed, and assay characteristics such as selectivity, reproducibility of detection at the minimum required performance level, limit of detection, and limit of identification were determined. An ethical committee approved controlled single dose commercially available CBD products administration study was conducted to identify 16 cannabinoids in urine samples collected after ingestion or application of the CBD products as well as their presence in spot urine samples of habitual CBD users. Variable patterns of cannabinoids or their metabolites were observed in the urine samples, especially when full spectrum CBD products were consumed. The presence of minor cannabinoids or their metabolites in an athlete's in-competition urine sample represents a substantial risk of an antidoping rule violation.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.