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This article is the author's final published version in Sensors, Volume 24, Issue 6, March 2024, Article number 1902.

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In this study, we developed a machine learning model for automated seizure detection using system identification techniques on EEG recordings. System identification builds mathematical models from a time series signal and uses a small number of parameters to represent the entirety of time domain signal epochs. Such parameters were used as features for the classifiers in our study. We analyzed 69 seizure and 55 non-seizure recordings and an additional 10 continuous recordings from Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, alongside a larger dataset from the CHB-MIT database. By dividing EEGs into epochs (1 s, 2 s, 5 s, and 10 s) and employing fifth-order state-space dynamic systems for feature extraction, we tested various classifiers, with the decision tree and 1 s epochs achieving the highest performance: 96.0% accuracy, 92.7% sensitivity, and 97.6% specificity based on the Jefferson dataset. Moreover, as the epoch length increased, the accuracy dropped to 94.9%, with a decrease in sensitivity to 91.5% and specificity to 96.7%. Accuracy for the CHB-MIT dataset was 94.1%, with 87.6% sensitivity and 97.5% specificity. The subject-specific cases showed improved results, with an average of 98.3% accuracy, 97.4% sensitivity, and 98.4% specificity. The average false detection rate per hour was 0.5 ± 0.28 in the 10 continuous EEG recordings. This study suggests that using a system identification technique, specifically, state-space modeling, combined with machine learning classifiers, such as decision trees, is an effective and efficient approach to automated seizure detection.

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