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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the authors' final version prior to publication in Current topics in microbiology and immunology Volume 332, April 2009, Pages 1-11. The published version is available at DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-70868-1_1. Copyright © Springer Verlag.


The advent of technologies to express heterologous proteins in planta has led to the proposition that plants may be engineered to be safe, inexpensive vehicles for the production of vaccines and possibly even vectors for their delivery. The immunogenicity of a variety of antigens of relevance to vaccination expressed in different plants has been assessed. The purpose of this article is to examine the utility of plant-expression systems in vaccine development from an immunological perspective.