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This article is the author's final published version in International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 6, March 2024, Article number 3268.

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Copyright © 2024 by the authors


Cardiovascular diseases are a significant cause of illness and death worldwide, often resulting in myofibroblast differentiation, pathological remodeling, and fibrosis, characterized by excessive extracellular matrix protein deposition. Treatment options for cardiac fibrosis that can effectively target myofibroblast activation and ECM deposition are limited, necessitating an unmet need for new therapeutic approaches. In recent years, microcurrent therapy has demonstrated promising therapeutic effects, showcasing its translational potential in cardiac care. This study therefore sought to investigate the effects of microcurrent therapy on cardiac myofibroblasts, aiming to unravel its potential as a treatment for cardiac fibrosis and heart failure. The experimental design involved the differentiation of primary rat cardiac fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Subsequently, these cells were subjected to microcurrent (MC) treatment at 1 and 2 µA/cm2 DC with and without polarity reversal. We then investigated the impact of microcurrent treatment on myofibroblast cell behavior, including protein and gene expression, by performing various assays and analyses comparing them to untreated myofibroblasts and cardiac fibroblasts. The application of microcurrents resulted in distinct transcriptional signatures and improved cellular processes. Gene expression analysis showed alterations in myofibroblast markers, extracellular matrix components, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These observations show signs of microcurrent-mediated reversal of myofibroblast phenotype, possibly reducing cardiac fibrosis, and providing insights for cardiac tissue repair.

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