Although the genetic code is degenerate, synonymous codons for the same amino acid are not translated equally. Codon-specific translation is important for controlling gene expression and determining the proteome of a cell. At the molecular level, codon-specific translation is regulated by post-transcriptional epigenetic modifications of tRNA primarily at the wobble position 34 and at position 37 on the 3′-side of the anticodon. Modifications at these positions determine the quality of codon-anticodon pairing and the speed of translation on the ribosome. Different modifications operate in distinct mechanisms of codon-specific translation, generating a diversity of regulation that is previously unanticipated. Here we summarize recent work that demonstrates codon-specific translation mediated by the m 1 G37 methylation of tRNA at CCC and CCU codons for proline, an amino acid that has unique features in translation.
Hou, Ya-Ming; Masuda, Isao; and Gamper, Howard, "Codon-Specific Translation by m1G37 Methylation of tRNA" (2019). Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers. Paper 149.
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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the author’s final published version in Frontiers in Genetics, Volume 10, Issue JAN, January 2019, Article number 713.
The published version is available at https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00713. Copyright © Hou et al.