Although the genetic code is degenerate, synonymous codons for the same amino acid are not translated equally. Codon-specific translation is important for controlling gene expression and determining the proteome of a cell. At the molecular level, codon-specific translation is regulated by post-transcriptional epigenetic modifications of tRNA primarily at the wobble position 34 and at position 37 on the 3′-side of the anticodon. Modifications at these positions determine the quality of codon-anticodon pairing and the speed of translation on the ribosome. Different modifications operate in distinct mechanisms of codon-specific translation, generating a diversity of regulation that is previously unanticipated. Here we summarize recent work that demonstrates codon-specific translation mediated by the m 1 G37 methylation of tRNA at CCC and CCU codons for proline, an amino acid that has unique features in translation.
Hou, Ya-Ming; Masuda, Isao; and Gamper, Howard, "Codon-Specific Translation by m1G37 Methylation of tRNA" (2019). Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers. Paper 149.
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