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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the authors' final version prior to publication in Current Opinion in Ophthalmology Volume 21, Issue 5, September 2010, Pages 356-360. The published version is available at DOI: 10.1097/ICU.0b013e32833cf03a. Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Considerable uncertainty and controversy has existed concerning the management of convergence insufficiency. Only recently there have been significant scientific studies published that compare the effectiveness of the commonly prescribed treatments. This paper reviews the most recent research and literature on convergence insufficiency and its treatment.

RECENT FINDINGS: The first large-scale placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials to study the various treatments of convergence insufficiency have recently been published. Current research compares the effectiveness of base-in prism glasses, pencil push-ups, and vision therapy in reducing the signs and symptoms of convergence insufficiency and suggests that orthoptic therapy is the most efficacious treatment for convergence insufficiency.

SUMMARY: Intensive orthoptic therapy is the treatment of choice for convergence insufficiency. Pencil push-ups and use of accommodative targets have a role in the treatment of convergence insufficiency when used as part of a more intensive orthoptic program. Base-in prism glasses should be reserved for reduction of symptoms in the presbyopic population.

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