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This article is the author's final published version in the Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research, Volume 19, Issue 1, January 2024, Pages 88 - 108.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2024 Shalaby et al.


Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Among all glaucoma types, primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) affects approximately 23 million people worldwide, and is responsible for 50% of glaucoma-related blindness, highlighting the devastating consequences of this disease. The main mechanism of PACG is relative pupillary block. High-risk populations are female gender, Asian ethnicity, high hyperopia, short axial length, and a thick/anteriorly positioned lens. This review discusses the clinical diagnosis, classification, and management of patients with a narrow angle with and without intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation and glaucomatous optic nerve damage, including laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI), endocycloplasty (ECPL), lens extraction, and goniosynechialysis.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.