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This article has been peer reviewed. It is published in Clinical Interventions In Aging. July 2, 2010, Pages 187-197. The published version is available at ISSN 1178-1998 (Online). Copyright © Dove Medical Press Ltd.


Widespread screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has led to a significant increase in the detection of early stage, clinically localized prostate cancer (CaP). Various ­treatment options for localized CaP are discussed in this review article including active ­surveillance, radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, and cyrotherapy. The paucity of high-level evidence adds a considerable amount of controversy when choosing the “optimal” ­intervention, for both the treating physician and the patient. The long time course of CaP intervention outcomes, combined with continuing modifications in treatments, further complicate the ­matter. Lacking randomized trials that compare treatment options, this review article attempts to summarize the different treatment options and associated side-effects, including effects on health-related quality of life, from current published literature.

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