Voided urine test to diagnose prostate cancer: Preliminary report.

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This article is the author's final published version in CytoJournal, October 2021, Volume 18.

The published version is available at https://doi.org/10.25259/Cytojournal_76_2020

Copyright © 2021 Cytopathology Foundation Inc, Published by Scientific Scholar

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.


Objectives: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common malignancy affecting elderly male. At present, PCa is estimated using serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Prostate biopsy remains the gold standard to confirm the diagnosis of PCa. In this preliminary study, we have assessed the feasibility of detecting PCa using voided urine by targeting the genomic vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor (VPAC) expressed on malignant PCa cells.

Material and Methods: Patients ≥40 years old, with no lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and serum PSA levels of2.6 ng/ mL formed the study group. Patients were advised to give the first 50 mL of voided urine sample for the detection of malignant markers by targeting the VPAC. The results of histopathological studies were then compared to the results of urine biomarker.

Results: The study revealed absence of malignant markers in 75 patients (control group). In the study group, all the 33 patients with adenocarcinoma were positive for malignant markers in the biomarker study and absence of malignant markers in the 32 patients with benign histology. The results of the biomarker studies and histopathology were consistent with each other.

Conclusion: This preliminary study validates our belief that patients with PCa do shed malignant cells in the urine which can be identified by targeting the VPAC. The investigation is easy and our data appear to be highly encouraging and further serve as a simple, reliable, and a non-invasive tool in the detection of PCa.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 License.

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