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This article has been peer reviewed. It was published in Clinical Interventions in Aging Volume 5, July 2010, Pages 187 - 197. The published version is available at DOI: 10.2147/CIA.S6555 . Copyright © Dove Medical Press Ltd.


Widespread screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has led to a significant increase in the detection of early stage, clinically localized prostate cancer (CaP). Various treatment options for localized CaP are discussed in this review article including active surveillance, radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, and cryotherapy. The paucity of high-level evidence adds a considerable amount of controversy when choosing the "optimal" intervention, for both the treating physician and the patient. The long time course of CaP intervention outcomes, combined with continuing modifications in treatments, further complicate the matter. Lacking randomized trials that compare treatment options, this review article attempts to summarize the different treatment options and associated side-effects, including effects on health-related quality of life, from current published literature.

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