Document Type


Publication Date



This is the final published version of an article from the Journal of Thorasic Disease, Volume 12, Issue 3, March 2020, Pages 998-1006.

The published version of the article can be found at Copyright Sukhavasi et. al.


Patients with achondroplasia and other causes of dwarfism suffer from increased rates of cardiovascular disease relative to the remainder of the population. Few studies have examined these patients when undergoing cardiac surgery or percutaneous intervention. This systematic review examines the literature to determine outcomes following cardiac intervention in this unique population. An electronic search was performed in the English literature to identify all reports of achondroplasia, dwarfism, and cardiac intervention. Of the 5,274 articles identified, 14 articles with 14 cases met inclusion criteria. Patient-level data was extracted and analyzed. Median patient age was 55.5 [interquartile ranges (IQR), 43.8, 59.8] years, median height 102.0 [98.8, 112.5] cm, median BMI 32.1 [27.0, 45.9], and 57.1% (8/14) were male. Of these 14 patients, nine had the following documented skeletal abnormalities: 66.7% (6/9) had scoliosis, 66.7% (6/9) had kyphosis, 11.1% (1/9) had lordosis, 11.1% (1/9) pectus carinatum and 11.1% (1/9) spinal stenosis. Coronary artery disease was present in 53.8% (7/13), and 30.8% (4/13) patients previously suffered a myocardial infarction. Of the eight patients who underwent cardiac surgery, 37.5% (3/8) underwent multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting, 37.5% (3/8) underwent aortic valve replacement, 25.0% (2/8) underwent type A aortic dissection repair, and the remaining 12.5% (1/8) underwent pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. Six patients underwent percutaneous intervention. Median cardiopulmonary bypass time was 136.5 [110.0, 178.8] minutes. Median arterial cannula size was 20.0 [20.0, 24.0] Fr. Bicaval cannulation was performed in all cases describing cannulation strategy (5/5). Median superior vena cava cannula size was 28.0 [28.0, 28.0] Fr, and inferior vena cava cannula size was 28.0 [28.0, 28.0] Fr. No mortality was reported with a median follow up time of 6.0 [6.0, 10.5] months. In conclusion, Common cardiac procedures can be performed with reasonable safety in this patient population. Operative adjustments may need to be made with respect to equipment to accommodate patient-specific needs.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.