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This article is the author's final published version in International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 24, Issue 22, November 2023, Article number 16099.

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Copyright © 2023 by the authors.


Peripheral artery disease (PAD), coronary artery disease (CAD), and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) are characterized by atherosclerosis and inflammation as their underlying mechanisms. This paper aims to conduct a literature review on pharmacotherapy for PAD, specifically focusing on how different drug classes target pro-inflammatory pathways. The goal is to enhance the choice of therapeutic plans by considering their impact on the chronic subclinical inflammation that is associated with PAD development and progression. We conducted a comprehensive review of currently published original articles, narratives, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. The aim was to explore the relationship between PAD and inflammation and evaluate the influence of current pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions on the underlying chronic subclinical inflammation. Our findings indicate that the existing treatments have added anti-inflammatory properties that can potentially delay or prevent PAD progression and improve outcomes, independent of their effects on traditional risk factors. Although inflammation-targeted therapy in PAD shows promising potential, its benefits have not been definitively proven yet. However, it is crucial not to overlook the pleiotropic properties of the currently available treatments, as they may provide valuable insights for therapeutic strategies. Further studies focusing on the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of these treatments could enhance our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the residual risk in PAD and pave the way for the development of novel therapies.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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