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This article is the author's final published version in the Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 12, Issue 20, October 2023, Article number 6689.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) involves the compression of neurovascular structures in the thoracic outlet. TOS subtypes, including neurogenic (nTOS), venous (vTOS), and arterial (aTOS) are characterized by distinct clinical presentations and diagnostic considerations. This review explores the incidence, diagnostic challenges, and management of TOS with a focus on the innovative approach of Robotic First Rib Resection (R-FRR). Traditional management of TOS includes conservative measures and surgical interventions, with various open surgical approaches carrying risks of complications. R-FRR, a minimally invasive technique, offers advantages such as improved exposure, reduced injury risk to neurovascular structures, and shorter hospital stays. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to assess the outcomes of R-FRR for TOS. Data from 12 selected studies involving 397 patients with nTOS, vTOS, and aTOS were reviewed. The results indicate that R-FRR is associated with favorable intraoperative outcomes including minimal blood loss and low conversion rates to traditional approaches. Postoperatively, patients experienced decreased pain, improved function, and low complication rates. These findings support R-FRR as a safe and effective option for medically refractory TOS.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.