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This article is the author’s final published version in Cardiovascular Diabetology, Volume 21, Issue 1, October 2022, Article number 214.

The published version is available at Copyright © Rando et al.


Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is one of the most disabling cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus and is indeed associated with a high risk of cardiovascular and limb adverse events. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) is a nuclear protein involved in the inflammatory response that acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine when released into the extracellular space. HMBG-1 is associated with PAD in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between serum HMGB-1 levels and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and major adverse limb events (MALE) after lower-extremity endovascular revascularization (LER) in a group of diabetic patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI).

Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of 201 diabetic patients with PAD and CLTI requiring LER. Baseline serum HMGB-1 levels were determined before endovascular procedure. Data on cardiovascular and limb outcomes were collected in a 12-month follow-up.

Results: During the follow-up period, 81 cases of MACE and 93 cases of MALE occurred. Patients who subsequently developed MACE and MALE had higher serum HMGB-1 levels. Specifically, 7.5 ng/mL vs 4.9 ng/mL (p < 0.01) for MACE and 7.2 ng/mL vs 4.8 ng/mL (p < 0.01) for MALE. After adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the association between serum HMGB-1 levels and cardiovascular outcomes remained significant in multivariable analysis. In our receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, serum HMGB-1 levels were a good predictor of MACE incidence (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.78) and MALE incidence (AUC = 0.75).

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that serum HMGB-1 levels are associated with the incidence of MACE and MALE after LER in diabetic populations with PAD and CLTI.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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