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This article is the author's final published version in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 18, Sept. 2022, Article number 10814.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).


Dietary risk factors play a fundamental role in the prevention and progression of atherosclerosis and PAD (Peripheral Arterial Disease). The impact of nutrition, however, defined as the process of taking in food and using it for growth, metabolism and repair, remains undefined with regard to PAD. This article describes the interplay between nutrition and the development/progression of PAD. We reviewed 688 articles, including key articles, narrative and systematic reviews, meta-analyses and clinical studies. We analyzed the interaction between nutrition and PAD predictors, and subsequently created four descriptive tables to summarize the relationship between PAD, dietary risk factors and outcomes. We comprehensively reviewed the role of well-studied diets (Mediterranean, vegetarian/vegan, low-carbohydrate ketogenic and intermittent fasting diet) and prevalent eating behaviors (emotional and binge eating, night eating and sleeping disorders, anorexia, bulimia, skipping meals, home cooking and fast/ultra-processed food consumption) on the traditional risk factors of PAD. Moreover, we analyzed the interplay between PAD and nutritional status, nutrients, dietary patterns and eating habits. Dietary patterns and eating disorders affect the development and progression of PAD, as well as its disabling complications including major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and major adverse limb events (MALE). Nutrition and dietary risk factor modification are important targets to reduce the risk of PAD as well as the subsequent development of MACE and MALE.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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