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This article is the author’s final published version in Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 71, Issue 10, October 2023, Pages 3361-3366.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2023 Indian Journal of Ophthalmology.


PURPOSE: To report a big data analysis of risk and protective factors in patients with AMD, as well as report on the age-adjusted prevalence in a geriatric Indian cohort in a hospital setting.

METHODS: This retrospective, observational study of all patients older than 60 years of age. Multiple logistic regression was performed for the binary outcome and the presence of AMD. Variables analyzed include age, gender, socioeconomic status, occupation, urban-rural-metropolitan distribution, self-reported history of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), or coronary artery disease (CAD), ocular comorbidities, history of cataract surgery, and presenting VA. Odds ratios (OR) and 99% confidence intervals were calculated.

RESULTS: Of the 608,171 patients over the age of 60 years who attended our clinics, 1.68% of subjects had a diagnosis of AMD (N = 10,217). Less than half (4,621 of 10,217 with AMD) of them were diagnosed to have dry AMD. Cataract, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy were associated with lower risk of AMD. Cataract surgery was associated with the higher risk of AMD (OR = 1.20; 99% CI 1.13-1.29). Smoking was not associated with AMD.

CONCLUSION: Big data analysis from a hospital setting shows that the prevalence of AMD above the age of 60 years is low. More patients with wet AMD present for treatment compared to dry AMD. Smoking was not associated with AMD in the Indian population. Cataract surgery was associated with higher prevalence of AMD.

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