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This article is the author's final published version in Microbial Genomics, Volume 9, Issue 9, 2023, Article number 001094.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2023 The Authors.


Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading vaccine-preventable cause of childhood invasive disease. Nigeria has the second highest pneumococcal disease burden globally, with an estimated ~49 000 child deaths caused by pneumococcal infections each year. Ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (GSK; PCV10) was introduced in December 2014 in a phased approach. However, few studies have characterized the disease-causing pneumococci from Nigeria. This study assessed the prevalence of serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility and genomic lineages using whole genome sequencing and identified lineages that could potentially escape PCV10 (GSK). We also investigated the potential differences in pneumococcal lineage features between children with and without sickle cell disease. A collection of 192 disease-causing pneumococcal isolates was obtained from Kano (n=189) and Abuja (n=3) states, Nigeria, between 1 January 2014 and 31 May 2018. The majority (99 %, 190/192) of specimens were recovered from children aged 5 years or under. Among them, 37 children had confirmed or traits of sickle cell disease. Our findings identified 25 serotypes expressed by 43 Global Pneumococcal Sequence Clusters (GPSCs) and 85 sequence types (STs). The most common serotypes were 14 (18 %, n=35), 6B (16 %, n=31), 1 (9 %, n=17), 5 (9 %, n=17) and 6A (9 %, n=17); all except serotype 6A are included in PCV10 (GSK). PCV10 (SII; PNEUMOSIL) and PCV13 formulations include serotypes 6A and 19A which would increase the overall coverage from 67 % by PCV10 (GSK) to 78 and 82 %, respectively. The pneumococcal lineages were a mix of globally spreading and unique local lineages. Following the use of PCV10 (GSK), GPSC5 expressing serotype 6A, GPSC10 (19A), GPSC26 (12F and 46) and GPSC627 (9L) are non-vaccine type lineages that could persist and potentially expand under vaccine-selective pressure. Approximately half (52 %, 99/192) of the pneumococcal isolates were resistant to the first-line antibiotic penicillin and 44 % (85/192) were multidrug-resistant. Erythromycin resistance was very low (2 %, 3/192). There was no significant difference in clinical manifestation, serotype prevalence or antibiotic resistance between children with and without traits of or confirmed sickle cell disease. In summary, our findings show that a high percentage of the pneumococcal disease were caused by the serotypes that are covered by currently available vaccines. Given the low prevalence of resistance, macrolide antibiotics, such as erythromycin, should be considered as an option to treat pneumococcal disease in Nigeria. However, appropriate use of macrolide antibiotics should be vigilantly monitored to prevent the potential increase in macrolide resistance.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.