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This article is the author's final published version in Cancers, Volume 15, Issue 11, 2023, Article number 2935.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between various respiratory conditions, including hypercapnic respiratory disease, and a multitude of resected pancreatic lesions. Methods: This retrospective case-control study queried a prospectively maintained database of patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy between January 2015 and October 2021. Patient data, including smoking history, medical history, and pathology reports, were recorded. Patients with no smoking history and no concomitant respiratory conditions were designated as the control group. Results: A total of 723 patients with complete clinical and pathological data were identified. Male current smokers showed increased rates of PDAC (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.07–5.08, p = 0.039). Male patients with COPD had a markedly increased association with IPMN (OR 3.02, CI 1.08–8.41, p = 0.039), while females with obstructive sleep apnea had a four-fold increase in risk of IPMN compared to women in the control group (OR 3.89, CI 1.46–10.37, p = 0.009). Surprisingly, female patients with asthma had a decreased incidence of pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.18–0.71. p < 0.01). Conclusion: This large cohort study reveals possible links between respiratory pathologies and various pancreatic mass-forming lesions.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.