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Introduction: Fistula formation between the trachea and the innominate artery is a life-threatening complication rarely seen with existing or previous tracheostomy. Fatal upon rupture, swift diagnosis and immediate intervention are paramount for survival. We aim to identify feasibility and outcomes of endovascular intervention for trachea-innominate fistula (TIF).

Methods: Patient-level data of reported individuals above the age of 14 that underwent endovascular intervention for TIF was extracted and analyzed. Identification of 25 patients from 27 studies was accomplished by electronic database search of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Ovid Medline, and Scopus. Survival data was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis.

Results: Median patient age was 39.0 years [IQR 16.0, 47.5]. Median time to TIF presentation following tracheostomy was 2.2 months [0.5, 42.5]. 84.6% (22/27) exhibited tracheal hemorrhage at presentation. Covered stent graft placement was performed in 96.3% (26/27) and coil embolization in 3.8% (1/27). Repeat endovascular intervention was necessary in 18.5% (5/27) and rescue sternotomy was required in 11.1% (3/27). Overall mortality was 29.6% (8/27) with a median follow-up time of 5 months [1.2, 11.5].

Discussion: Endovascular intervention may be an effective method of TIF repair at presentation. As an alternative to conventional surgical repair, endovascular intervention may be an appropriate method for TIF repair particularly in patients unfit for open sternotomy repair.