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This article is the author's final published version in Materials, Volume 17, Issue 2, 2024, Article number 526.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2024 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


The pursuit of an environmentally sustainable manufacturing process requires the substitution of less damaging and recyclable solutions for harmful reagents. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of using cellulose microfibrils synthesized via different hydrolysis reactions as reinforcing agents in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at varying concentrations. The investigation explores the morphology, thermal properties, and chemical behavior of the cellulose particles. The cellulose microfibrils (CMFs) produced using citric acid exhibited the highest yield and aspect ratio. Notably, particles from organic acids demonstrated greater thermal stability, with oxalic acid-derived particles displaying the maximum thermal degradation temperature. Subsequently, cast films of PVA reinforced with the cellulose microfibrils underwent comprehensive analyses, including Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermal degradation temperature (Td), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile strength tests. The thermal behavior of cast films experienced notable changes with the addition of cellulose particles, evidenced by increased melting and crystallinity temperatures, along with a rise in the degree of crystallinity. The incorporation of cellulose particles led to a substantial improvement in mechanical properties. Films containing CMF displayed higher Young’s modulus, and the sample incorporating 5% CMF derived from citric acid exhibited the most significant increase in modulus.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.