R. Marino, M. Leff, D. Cardenas, D. Chen, S. Kirshblum, and B. Leiby
Objective: Recent studies on conversion of ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) grades report higher rates of conversion than older studies. The purpose of this study is to examine the rate of conversion over time in persons with ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) grade A spinal cord injury (SCI), accounting for level of injury.
Methods: Subjects were injured between 1995 and 2015, enrolled in the National SCI Database as Day-1 admissions, at least 16 years old at the time of injury, classified as AIS A, and had an initial examination within 2 weeks of injury. Change in AIS grade was determined for subjects who had followup examinations at least 30 days post injury. Subjects were grouped in 3-year intervals and trends in AIS grade conversion were assessed for the total sample and by tetraplegia (Tetra), high paraplegia (T1-9, HPara) and low paraplegia (T10-12, LPara).
Results: There were 2037 subjects with usable initial examination data, of whom 1877 had a follow up examination. Average age at injury was 35.0 +/-15.4 years, 79.8% were male, 44.6% Tetra, 35.3% HPara, 20.1% LPara. Overall 80.8% remained AIS A at follow-up, with 8.8% converting to motor incomplete. Change in AIS grade differed by level of injury: 71.4%, 90.9% and 83,2% of Tetra, HParaand LPararemained AIS A, with 13.5%, 4.5% and 6.1% respectively converting to motor incomplete. There was a strong trend towards increased rates of conversion over time, especially for persons with Tetra (p<0.01 for all groups). For Tetra, conversion rates to incomplete (AIS B-E) were 17.6% in the 1995-1997 period increasing to 50% in the 2013-2015 period, while conversion rates to motor incomplete (AIS C-E) were 9.4% increasing to 28.1% at these times. For Hparaover the same periods conversion rates to incomplete changed from 5.3% to 17.6% and to motor incomplete from 3.0% to 6.8%. LParaconversion rates to incomplete changed from 8.0% to 23.1% and to motor incomplete from 2.7% to 15.4%.
Conclusion: Although there is some variability in rates, conversion from complete to incomplete or motor incomplete has been increasing over time, particularly for persons with tetraplegia.
Functional Swallow-Related Outcomes Following Transoral Robotic Surgery for Base of Tongue Carcinoma: A Pilot Study
Kelly Salmon, SLPD, CCC-SLP, BCS-S, CLT-LANA and Cesar Ruiz, SLPD, CCC-SLP, BCS-S
In an era where the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer has been growing steadily, there is a limited amount of research exploring functional outcomes for individuals whose definitive cancer management approach includes transoral robotic surgical (TORS) resection with or without adjuvant treatment.
This study was designed to examine functional outcome measures related to tongue strength, swallow function, oral intake, and quality of life in individuals newly diagnosed with base of tongue (BOT) cancer whose treatment plan included surgical resection via TORS, with or without a plan for subsequent adjuvant treatment in the form of radiation or chemoradiation. Data was collected preoperatively and at several time points postoperatively.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether TORS resection for early-stage BOT SCCA affected: (a) lingual strength, (b) swallow safety and efficiency, (c) oral intake, and (d) swallowing-related quality of life.
Nethra S. Ankam, MD
During the 2017-2018 academic year, a large private medical college underwent a complete transformation of its curriculum from a primarily lecture based, traditional format to an integrated, longitudinal format that included both time limited blocks and longitudinal threads of content. Wellness, conceptualized at both wellness of the provider and the patient, is one of the eight threads.
- Provide a structured pause in medical school for you to reflect on your own wellness
- Allow time to explore the ideas of resilience
- Provide time for rejuvenation
- Allow you to start building productive habits to last you throughout your entire medical careers
Beth Colborn, DPT; Helene Daly, MSN, RN; Kathleen Hilbert, RN, MSN, CM; Gordon R. Reeves, MD; Jessica Shank, PT, MPT; Elizabeth Singh, DPT; and Lisa Wus, DNP, RN, CRNP, PCCN-CMC
•Create an interdisciplinary approach to patient mobility and functional independence
•Provide education and support to lead a culture of mobility
•Develop a system that reduces immobility related adverse outcomes and promotes overall patient well-being
•Utilize evidence based practice to create a program that will decrease variation in patient care in order to optimize hospital based outcomes
Daniel E. Graves, PhD and Darryn Atkinson, PhD, PT
This poster describes the development of and the psychometric properties of the trunk scale that measures the voluntary motor ability in the thoracic and upper lumbar regions. The function of the trunk musculature has far reaching implications, particularly in persons with SCI, where postural control and voluntary movement are compromised to varying degrees. Precisely coordinated muscle actions must occur in the appropriate sequence, duration, and combination for the optimal movement function and maintenance of balance and posture during dynamic activities. Trunk mobility is required for nearly all mobility tasks, particularly transitional movements such as rolling, supine to sit, and sit to stand, as well as activities of daily living which involve upper extremity movements such as reaching. The muscles innervated by the thoracic and lumbar spine play key roles in body positioning and posture which are very important in conducting functional activities such as ambulation, reaching and activities of daily living (ADL)1.
Poster presented at: ISCOS Annual Meeting in Dublin Ireland.
B. A. Dahlben, MS and D. Fleischmann, MD
- A 36-year-old man presented with a large epidural collection, shown on MRI to extend from C1-S5 and resulting in spinal canal narrowing (Figures 1-3). The patient was admitted for acute inpatient rehabilitation after neurosurgical treatment and stabilization s/p C7-T1, T7-8, L4-5 laminectomies.
- He presented with impaired mobility and activities of daily living, and reported moderate pain in the back and lower extremities, but without specific distribution, during PT/OT therapies.
- Throughout his 7-day length of stay, the patient was closely monitored for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus bacteremia, and he received IV oxacillin and oral rifampin. Active medical problems included bright red blood per rectum with a likely diagnosis of hemorrhoids, DVT prophylaxis, newly diagnosed Type 2 DM, and urinary retention.
- The patient was switched from straight to intermittent catheter, but inability to void was complicated by urinary tract infection (UTI). Voiding improved after UTI treatment with macrobid antibiotic.
Kara Maharay, M.S., CCC-SLP, BCS-S; Kelly Salmon, M.A., CCC-SLP, BCS-S, CLT-LANA; and Ronald S. Kaiser, Ph.D
Objective: Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a genetic and degenerative motor neuron disease that affects muscle control including the muscles responsible for head and neck control and swallowing (Kesting, n. d.). There is limited research on the benefits of exercise as a therapeutic modality for people with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) (Swoboda et al., 2007) and no existing research specifically targeting pharyngeal or laryngeal strengthening to improve swallow function. As demonstrated by the positive outcome in this case study, speech-language pathologists should be aware that various modalities for dysphagia treatment such as biofeedback, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), and an exercise based approach in conjunction with compensatory strategies may be effective in the swallowing rehabilitation of patients with patients with SMA.
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