Document Type


Publication Date



This article has been peer reviewed. It is the author’s final published version in Frontiers in Oncology Volume 6, June 2016, Article number 135.

The published version is available at DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2016.00135. Copyright © Shestov, Lee, Nath, Guo, Nelson, Roman, Leeper, Wasik, Blair and Glickson


We present the first validated metabolic network model for analysis of flux through key pathways of tumor intermediary metabolism, including glycolysis, the oxidative and non-oxidative arms of the pentose pyrophosphate shunt, the TCA cycle as well as its anaplerotic pathways, pyruvate-malate shuttling, glutaminolysis, and fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidation. The model that is called Bonded Cumomer Analysis for application to (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13)C MRS) data and Fragmented Cumomer Analysis for mass spectrometric data is a refined and efficient form of isotopomer analysis that can readily be expanded to incorporate glycogen, phospholipid, and other pathways thereby encompassing all the key pathways of tumor intermediary metabolism. Validation was achieved by demonstrating agreement of experimental measurements of the metabolic rates of oxygen consumption, glucose consumption, lactate production, and glutamate pool size with independent measurements of these parameters in cultured human DB-1 melanoma cells. These cumomer models have been applied to studies of DB-1 melanoma and DLCL2 human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells in culture and as xenografts in nude mice at 9.4 T. The latter studies demonstrate the potential translation of these methods to in situ studies of human tumor metabolism by MRS with stable (13)C isotopically labeled substrates on instruments operating at high magnetic fields (≥7 T). The melanoma studies indicate that this tumor line obtains 51% of its ATP by mitochondrial metabolism and 49% by glycolytic metabolism under both euglycemic (5 mM glucose) and hyperglycemic conditions (26 mM glucose). While a high level of glutamine uptake is detected corresponding to ~50% of TCA cycle flux under hyperglycemic conditions, and ~100% of TCA cycle flux under euglycemic conditions, glutaminolysis flux and its contributions to ATP synthesis were very small. Studies of human lymphoma cells demonstrated that inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling produced changes in flux through the glycolytic, pentose shunt, and TCA cycle pathways that were evident within 8 h of treatment and increased at 24 and 48 h. Lactate was demonstrated to be a suitable biomarker of mTOR inhibition that could readily be monitored by (1)H MRS and perhaps also by FDG-PET and hyperpolarized (13)C MRS methods.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

PubMed ID