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This article is the author's final published version in Cancers, Volume 15, Issue 23, December 2023, Article number 5683.

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Copyright © 2023 by the authors.


Previous work has reported the design of a novel thermobrachytherapy (TBT) balloon implant to deliver magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) hyperthermia and high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy simultaneously after brain tumor resection, thereby maximizing their synergistic effect. This paper presents an evaluation of the robustness of the balloon device, compatibility of its heat and radiation delivery components, as well as thermal and radiation dosimetry of the TBT balloon. TBT balloon devices with 1 and 3 cm diameter were evaluated when placed in an external magnetic field with a maximal strength of 8.1 kA/m at 133 kHz. The MNP solution (nanofluid) in the balloon absorbs energy, thereby generating heat, while an HDR source travels to the center of the balloon via a catheter to deliver the radiation dose. A 3D-printed human skull model was filled with brain-tissue-equivalent gel for in-phantom heating and radiation measurements around four 3 cm balloons. For the in vivo experiments, a 1 cm diameter balloon was surgically implanted in the brains of three living pigs (40–50 kg). The durability and robustness of TBT balloon implants, as well as the compatibility of their heat and radiation delivery components, were demonstrated in laboratory studies. The presence of the nanofluid, magnetic field, and heating up to 77 °C did not affect the radiation dose significantly. Thermal mapping and 2D infrared images demonstrated spherically symmetric heating in phantom as well as in brain tissue. In vivo pig experiments showed the ability to heat well-perfused brain tissue to hyperthermic levels (≥40 °C) at a 5 mm distance from the 60 °C balloon surface.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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