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This article is the author's final published version in Health Science Reports, Volume 7, Issue 6, June 2024, Article number e2193.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2024 The Author(s). Health Science Reports published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.


Background and Aims

Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is common in males, causing reduced physical activity and chronic pain. One proposed cause of PFP is aberrant biomechanics during tasks loading the patellofemoral joint. Consistent evidence exists for females with PFP, but it is uncertain if males with PFP have altered biomechanics. This study investigated the kinematics of males with PFP compared to pain-free males during forward step-down (StDn) and single-leg squat (SLSq).


A cross-sectional study including 40 males aged 20–39 years (28.28 ± 5.46) was conducted (20 PFP, 20 pain-free). Participants performed StDn and SLSq while motion was captured with a video-based motion capture system (Motion Analysis Corporation). Triplanar peak angles and angular ranges of motion (ROM) of the trunk, pelvis, and weight-bearing hip, knee, and ankle were dependent variables. Mixed-model ANOVA tests were used to determine the presence of significant interactions and main effects of group and task.


Males with PFP had significantly lower peak knee adduction angles compared to pain-free males (p = 0.01). Significant group x task interactions were found for hip and pelvis ROM (p < 0.05). PFP participants had increased hip and pelvis ROM during StDn in the frontal and transverse planes but reduced or nearly equal ROM for these variables during SLSq. Peak hip adduction, hip internal rotation, contralateral pelvic drop and anterior tilt, trunk flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion were greater during StDn compared to SLSq (p < 0.05). ROM of the hip, pelvis, trunk, and ankle were greater during StDn compared to SLSq (p < 0.05).


Males with PFP had reduced peak knee adduction angles in StDn and SLSq. Males with PFP demonstrated increased hip and pelvis ROM during StDn versus SLSq, particularly in the frontal and transverse planes. Clinicians should consider StDn as a clinical test since aberrant movement may be easier to detect than in SLSq.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

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