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This article has been peer reviewed. It was published in: BMC Cancer.

2008 Oct 15;8:298.

The published version is available at DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-8-298. Copyright © BioMed Central.


BACKGROUND: While increased urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) expression in breast cancer tissue is directly associated with poor prognosis, recent evidence suggests that uPA overexpression may suppress tumor growth and prolong survival. Celecoxib has been shown to have antiangiogenic and antiproliferative properties. We sought to determine if uPA, PA inhibitor (PAI)-1 and prostaglandin (PG)E2 expression in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and uPA and PGE2 expression in plasma were altered by celecoxib dose and concentration in women at increased breast cancer risk.

METHODS: NAF and plasma samples were collected in women at increased breast cancer risk before and 2 weeks after taking celecoxib 200 or 400 mg twice daily (bid). uPA, PAI-1 and PGE2 were measured before and after intervention.

RESULTS: Celecoxib concentrations trended higher in women taking 400 mg (median 1025.0 ng/mL) compared to 200 mg bid (median 227.3 ng/mL), and in post- (534.6 ng/mL) compared to premenopausal (227.3 ng/mL) women. In postmenopausal women treated with the higher (400 mg bid) celecoxib dose, uPA concentrations increased, while PAI-1 and PGE2 decreased. In women taking the higher dose, both PAI-1 (r = -.97, p = .0048) and PGE2 (r = -.69, p = .019) in NAF and uPA in plasma (r = .45, p = .023) were correlated with celecoxib concentrations.

CONCLUSION: Celecoxib concentrations after treatment correlate inversely with the change in PAI-1 and PGE2 in the breast and directly with the change in uPA in the circulation. uPA upregulation, in concert with PAI-1 and PGE2 downregulation, may have a cancer preventive effect.

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