Parkinson's disease (PD) is a highly prevalent and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder that is typically diagnosed in an advanced stage. Currently, there are no approved biomarkers that reliably identify PD patients before they have undergone extensive neuronal damage, eliminating the opportunity for future disease-modifying therapies to intervene in disease progression. This unmet need for diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers has fueled PD research for decades, but these efforts have not yet yielded actionable results. Recently, studies exploring mechanisms underlying PD progression have offered insights into multisystemic contributions to pathology, challenging the classic perspective of PD as a disease isolated to the brain. This shift in understanding has opened the door to potential new biomarkers from multiple sites in the body. This review focuses on emerging candidates for PD biomarkers in the context of current diagnostic approaches and multiple organ systems that contribute to disease.
Cheslow, Lara; Snook, Adam E.; and Waldman, Scott A., "Emerging targets for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease: examination of systemic biomarkers." (2021). Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Faculty Papers. Paper 130.