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This article is the authors' final version prior to publication in Biomarkers in Medicine, Volume 15, Issue 8, June 2021, Pages 597-608.

The published version is available at Copyright © Cheslow et al.


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a highly prevalent and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder that is typically diagnosed in an advanced stage. Currently, there are no approved biomarkers that reliably identify PD patients before they have undergone extensive neuronal damage, eliminating the opportunity for future disease-modifying therapies to intervene in disease progression. This unmet need for diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers has fueled PD research for decades, but these efforts have not yet yielded actionable results. Recently, studies exploring mechanisms underlying PD progression have offered insights into multisystemic contributions to pathology, challenging the classic perspective of PD as a disease isolated to the brain. This shift in understanding has opened the door to potential new biomarkers from multiple sites in the body. This review focuses on emerging candidates for PD biomarkers in the context of current diagnostic approaches and multiple organ systems that contribute to disease.

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