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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the authors' final version prior to publication in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Volume 90, Issue 1, July 2011, Pages 10-13.

The published version is available at DOI: 10.1038/clpt.2011.80. Copyright © Elsevier Inc.


The evolution of enabling technologies and their associated perspectives into molecular mechanisms underlying disease has extended beyond the abilities of scientific and clinical structures to advance their translation into new algorithms that improve the health of patients and populations.1 Research programs have yielded a vast array of novel molecules related to pathophysiological mechanisms that represent diagnostic and therapeutic targets which have the potential for personalized healthcare management. Yet, despite extraordinary scientific advances, routine successful translation of discovery into new therapeutic tools remains a distant vision. Beyond constraints in bridging discovery science with clinical translation due to obstacles in facilities, resources and in skilled specialized investigators, 95% of therapies brought into product development by the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sector eventually fail, reflecting negative balance between efficacy and adverse effects.

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