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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the authors' final version prior to publication in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Volume 105, Issue 1, January 2019, Pages 71-78.

The published version is available at Copyright © American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics


In 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the first two novel cellular immunotherapies using synthetic, engineered receptors known as chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah) and axicabtagene ciloleucel (Yescarta), expressed by patient-derived T cells for the treatment of hematological malignancies expressing the B-cell surface antigen CD19 in both pediatric and adult patients. This approval marked a major milestone in the use of antigen-directed "living drugs" for the treatment of relapsed or refractory blood cancers, and with these two approvals, there is increased impetus to expand not only the target antigens but also the tumor types that can be targeted. This state-of-the-art review will focus on the challenges, advances, and novel approaches being used to implement CAR T-cell immunotherapy for the treatment of solid tumors.

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