In 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the first two novel cellular immunotherapies using synthetic, engineered receptors known as chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah) and axicabtagene ciloleucel (Yescarta), expressed by patient-derived T cells for the treatment of hematological malignancies expressing the B-cell surface antigen CD19 in both pediatric and adult patients. This approval marked a major milestone in the use of antigen-directed "living drugs" for the treatment of relapsed or refractory blood cancers, and with these two approvals, there is increased impetus to expand not only the target antigens but also the tumor types that can be targeted. This state-of-the-art review will focus on the challenges, advances, and novel approaches being used to implement CAR T-cell immunotherapy for the treatment of solid tumors.
Baybutt, Trevor R.; Flickinger, John C.; Caparosa, Ellen M.; and Snook, Adam E., "Advances in Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapies for Solid Tumors." (2019). Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Faculty Papers. Paper 102.