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This article is the author’s final published version in PLoS ONE, Volume 15, Issue 10, October 2020, Article number e0239224.

The published version is available at Copyright © Lukowski et al.


Individuals with Mathematics Learning Disabilities have persistent mathematics underperformance but vary with respect to their cognitive profiles. The present study examined mathematics ability and achievement, and associated mathematics-specific numerical skills and domain-general cognitive abilities, in young children with Turner syndrome compared to their matched peers. We utilized two independent peer groups so that group comparisons would account for verbal skills, a hypothesized strength of girls with Turner syndrome, and nonsymbolic magnitude comparison skills, a hypothesized difference of girls with Turner syndrome. This individual matching approach afforded characterization of mathematics profiles of girls with Turner syndrome and girls without Turner syndrome that share potential key features of the Turner syndrome phenotype. Results indicated differences in mathematics ability and nonsymbolic magnitude comparison tasks between girls with Turner syndrome and peers with similar levels of verbal skill. Mathematics ability and mathematics achievement scores of girls with Turner syndrome did not differ significantly from their peers with similar levels of accuracy on a nonsymbolic magnitude comparison task. Cognitive correlates of mathematics outcomes showed disparate patterns across groups. These quantitative and qualitative differences across profiles enhance our understanding of variation in mathematics ability in early childhood and inform how mathematics skills develop in young children with or without Turner syndrome.

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