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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the author’s final published version in Journal of clinical oncology : Official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology

Volume 35, Issue 30, October 2017, Pages 3465-3473

The published version is available at DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2017.73.5654. Copyright © American Society of Clinical Oncology


Purpose To determine whether the pattern of lung nodules in children with metastatic hepatoblastoma (HB) correlates with outcome. Methods Thirty-two patients with metastatic HB were enrolled on Children's Oncology Group Protocol AHEP0731 and treated with vincristine and irinotecan (VI). Responders to VI received two additional cycles of VI intermixed with six cycles of cisplatin/fluorouracil/vincristine/doxorubicin (C5VD), and nonresponders received six cycles of C5VD alone. Patients were imaged after every two cycles and at the conclusion of therapy. All computed tomography scans and pathology reports were centrally reviewed, and information was collected regarding lung nodule number, size, laterality, timing of resolution, and pulmonary surgery. Results Among the 29 evaluable patients, only 31% met Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) for measurable metastatic disease. The presence of measurable disease by RECIST, the sum of nodule diameters greater than or equal to the cumulative cohort median size, bilateral disease, and ≥ 10 nodules were each associated with an increased risk for an event-free survival event ( P = .48, P = .08, P = .065, P = .03, respectively), with nodule number meeting statistical significance. Ten patients underwent pulmonary resection/metastasectomy at various time points, the benefit of which could not be determined because of small patient numbers. Conclusion Children with metastatic HB have a poor prognosis. Overall tumor burden may be an important prognostic factor for these patients. Lesions that fail to meet RECIST size criteria (ie, those < 10 mm) at diagnosis may contain viable tumor, whereas residual lesions at the end of therapy may constitute eradicated tumor/scar tissue. Patients may benefit from risk stratification on the basis of the burden of lung metastatic disease at diagnosis.

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