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This article has been peer reviewed. It was published in: Clinical Epidemiology.

Volume 5, Issue 1, 24 April 2013, Pages 119-127.

The published version is available at

DOI: 10.2147/CLEP.S42602

Copyright © 2013 Höybye et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.


OBJECTIVE: Randomized controlled trials have shown that growth hormone (GH) therapy has effects on growth, metabolism, and body composition. GH therapy is prescribed for children with growth failure and adults with GH deficiency. Carefully conducted observational study of GH treatment affords the opportunity to assess long-term treatment outcomes and the clinical factors and variables affecting those outcomes, in patients receiving GH therapy in routine clinical practice.

DESIGN: The NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) and the American Norditropin® Studies: Web Enabled Research (ANSWER Program®) are two complementary, non-interventional, observational studies that adhere to current guidelines for pharmacoepidemiological data.

PATIENTS: The studies include pediatric and adult patients receiving Norditropin®, as prescribed by their physicians.

MEASUREMENTS: The studies gather long-term data on the safety and effectiveness of reallife treatment with the recombinant human GH, Norditropin®. We describe the origins, aims, objectives, and design methodology of the studies, as well as their governance and validity, strengths, and limitations.

CONCLUSION: The NordiNet® IOS and ANSWER Program® studies will provide valid insights into the effectiveness and safety of GH treatment across a diverse and large patient population treated in accordance with real-world clinical practice and following the Good Pharmacoepidemiological Practice and STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines.

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