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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the authors' final version prior to publication in Clinics in Chest Medicine Volume 32, Issue 1, March 2011, Pages 33-42. The published version is available at DOI: 10.1016/j.ccm.2010.10.002. Copyright © Elsevier Inc.


Radiography of the chest, head, neck, teeth, or extremity exposes the embryo or ovary to insignificant exposures of radiation except when radionuclides are utilized. In some instances, there is no exposure at all. Pulmonologists are fortunate with regard to the specific studies they request to provide clinical care because most of the diagnostic tests do not directly expose the uterus (embryo) or ovary. This article discusses radiation risks and their evaluation and pregnancy-related issues in diagnostic radiological studies.